Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Cold-Air Outbreaks in the Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (COMBLE)

1 December 2019 - 31 May 2020

Lead Scientist: Bart Geerts

Observatory: amf, anx

The main objective for the proposed deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility is to quantify the properties of boundary layer convection (BLC) and air-mass transformations in cold-air outbreaks (CAO) over open water in the Arctic. COMBLE will involve the deployment of the AMF1 and a satellite site to the far North Atlantic. The AMF will be deployed near Andenes, a town on an island in Northeastern Norway, while a reduced set of instruments will be deployed on Bear Island, located approximately mid-way between the Norway mainland and Svalbard. Specifically, COMBLE aims to: - describe and quantify the fetch-dependent mesoscale organization and the vertical structure of BLC, including vertical profiles of vertical velocity and turbulence in convection, cloud liquid water and ice mass concentrations, cloud particle sizes, phases and shapes, and fluxes of surface heat, moisture, and radiation; - examine the impact of varying aerosol conditions in the upstream Arctic boundary layer, as well as marine aerosol sources and anthropogenic pollution, on these distributions and on ice initiation and snow growth processes in a range of wind and temperature regimes; - evaluate ground-based remote sensing observations performed with the ARM mobile facility with accompanying aircraft measurements, and broaden the ARM point observations of CAO to the regional scale using those airborne measurements, as detailed below; and - provide integrated data sets of dynamical, thermodynamic, and microphysical characteristics of CAO boundary layer, including clouds and aerosol properties, that will enable constraining high-resolution numerical simulations, developing process-level understanding of BLC, and, subsequently, evaluating and improving representations of shallow convection in cold-air outbreaks in weather and climate models. Complimentary objectives enabled by this AMF deployment: - examine the vertical structure of developing polar lows; - examine orographic modification of BLC and the impact of BLC on precipitation in downwind coastal areas.


Steven Abel Paul Field Roel Neggers
Andrew Ackerman Ann Fridlind Mikhail Ovchinnikov
Alan Blyth Andreas Herber Michael Tjernstrom
Tom Choularton Michael Jensen Yonggang Wang
Susanne Crewell Pavlos Kollias Manfred Wendisch
Paul DeMott Greg McFarquhar Lulin Xue


  • Child Campaign


Dorsey KS, CB Ireland, ME Mundy, RA Stafford, KK Palmer, MR Wasem, ME Prichard, JM Comstock, and I Silber. 2024. 2023 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-23-047. 10.2172/2281709.

Nie Y, X Li, Q Paletta, M Aragon, A Scott, and A Brandt. 2024. "Open-source sky image datasets for solar forecasting with deep learning: A comprehensive survey." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 189, 113977, 10.1016/j.rser.2023.113977.


Matthews A, K Johnson, E Schuman, Y Feng, S Matrosov, J Comstock, and SE Giangrande. 2023. MOSAiC Radar b1 Processing: Corrections, Calibrations, and Processing Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-293. 10.2172/2229372.

Feng Y, A Theisen, IA Lindenmaier, S Collis, SE Giangrande, JM Comstock, AA Matthews, MN Rocque, E Schuman, TG Wendler, V Castro, M Deng, D Zhang, S Xie, and JE Flaherty. 2023. ARM FY2024 Radar Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-291. 10.2172/2217102.

Lackner C, B Geerts, Y Wang, T Juliano, L Xue, B Kosović, and D Turner. 2023. "Insights into the relation between vertical cloud structure and dynamics of three polar lows: Observations from COMBLE." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 149(756), 10.1002/qj.4543.
Research Highlight

Lackner C, B Geerts, T Juliano, L Xue, and B Kosovic. 2023. "Vertical Structure of Clouds and Precipitation During Arctic Cold‐Air Outbreaks and Warm‐Air Intrusions: Observations From COMBLE." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(13), 10.1029/2022JD038403.

Svensson G, S Murto, M Shupe, F Pithan, L Magnusson, J Day, J Doyle, I Renfrew, T Spengler, and T Vihma. 2023. "Warm air intrusions reaching the MOSAiC expedition in April 2020—The YOPP targeted observing period (TOP)." Elem Sci Anth, 11(1), 10.1525/elementa.2023.00016.

Lackner C, B Geerts, T Juliano, L Xue, and B Kosovic. 2023. "Vertical Structure of Clouds and Precipitation During Arctic Cold‐Air Outbreaks and Warm‐Air Intrusions: Observations From COMBLE." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(13), e2022JD038403, 10.1029/2022JD038403.
Research Highlight

Van Weverberg K, S Giangrande, D Zhang, C Morcrette, and P Field. 2023. "On the Role of Macrophysics and Microphysics in Km‐Scale Simulations of Mixed‐Phase Clouds during Cold Air Outbreaks." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(11), e2022JD037854, 10.1029/2022JD037854.
Research Highlight

Mages Z, P Kollias, Z ZHU, and E Luke. 2023. "Surface-based observations of cold-air outbreak clouds during the COMBLE field campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 23(6), 10.5194/acp-23-3561-2023.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Paul DeMott Ice Spectrometer Order Data
Kerstin Ebell micro rain radar Order Data
Harald Sodemann Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for Oxygen and Deuterium Isotope Analysis Order Data
Kjetil Stiansen Supplemental sonde instrument Order Data
Peng Wu Back Trajectory Calculation using the NOAA's HYSPLIT Modeling System Order Data

ANX Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
ACSM Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AERINF AERI Noise Filtered Browse Data
AERIOE AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval Browse Data
AETH Aethalometer Browse Data
AOP Aerosol Optical Properties Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
ARMBE ARM Best Estimate Data Products Browse Data
CAMINST camera that monitors an instrument Browse Data
CAMSITE camera that monitors a site area Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CCNKAPPA CCN Counter derived hygroscopicity parameter kappa Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CEILPBLHT Boundary-layer height data with CEIL Browse Data
CLDTYPE Cloud Type Classification Browse Data
CO-ANALYZER Carbon Monoxide Analyzer Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CSPHOT Sunphotometer Browse Data
DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data
DLPROF-WIND Doppler Lidar Horizontal Wind Profiles Browse Data
DLPROF-WSTATS Doppler Lidar Wind Statistics Profiles Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data
GENSTATE Generator State Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Browse Data
INTERPSONDE Interpolated Sonde Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
KASACRGRIDPPI Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar PPI scan, Cartesian Cloud Cover Grid VAP Browse Data
KASACRGRIDRHI Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar RHI scan, Cartesian Cloud Cover Grid VAP Browse Data
KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data
KAZRARSCL Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product using Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars Browse Data
KAZRCFRCOR Ka-Band ARM Zenith RADAR (KAZR) CF-Radial, Corrected VAP Browse Data
KZR K-band Zenith-pointing Radar Browse Data
LDIS Laser Disdrometer Browse Data
MAWS Automatic Weather Station Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
METWXT WXT520/530 Meteorological Instrument System Browse Data
MFR Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MICROBASEKAPLUS improved MICROBASE product with Uncertainties Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASKML Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Machine Learning VAP Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
MWRRET MWR Retrievals Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
NFOV Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer Browse Data
NORMETRDMOS Norwegian Meteorological Institute multi-radar mosaic Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
PPIHYD hydrometeor field statistics dataset derived from radar PPI scans Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
QCECOR Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement Browse Data
QCRAD Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data Browse Data
RADFLUXANAL Radiative Flux Analysis Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SEBS Surface Energy Balance System Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SMPS Scanning mobility particle sizer Browse Data
SODAR Mini Sound Detection and Ranging Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEGRID Gridded Sonde VAP Product Browse Data
THERMOCLOUDPHASE Thermodynamic cloud phase Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
UHSAS Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Browse Data
VARANAL Constrained Variational Analysis Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
WB Weighing Bucket Precipitation Gauge Browse Data
WSACR W-band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data