sodar > Mini Sound Detection and RangingInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • Guest

The SODAR (Sonic Detection and Ranging) wind profiler measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 15 meters (m) and 500 m.

It transmits acoustic energy into the atmosphere in multiple directions and measures the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. The strength of the backscattered signal is determined by the strength of temperature inhomogeneities with size on the order of 10 centimeters (cm). Assuming the scattering elements in the atmosphere are moving with the mean wind, the horizontal wind field can be derived.

The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) has a system developed by Scintec, Inc. that transmits a sequence of frequencies to enhance signal determination.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Dias-Júnior C, R CARNEIRO, G Fisch, F D’Oliveira, M Sörgel, S Botía, L Machado, S Wolff, R Santos, and C Pöhlker. 2022. "Intercomparison of Planetary Boundary Layer Heights Using Remote Sensing Retrievals and ERA5 Reanalysis over Central Amazonia." Remote Sensing, 14(18), 10.3390/rs14184561.


HENKES A, G Fisch, L Machado, and J Chaboureau. 2021. "Morning boundary layer conditions for shallow to deep convective cloud evolution during the dry season in the central Amazon." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 10.5194/acp-21-13207-2021.

Geerts B, G McFarquhar, L Xue, M Jensen, P Kollias, M Ovchinnikov, M Shupe, P DeMott, Y Wang, M Tjernstrom, P Field, S Abel, T Spengler, R Neggers, S Crewell, M Wendisch, and C Lupkes. 2021. Cold-Air Outbreaks in the Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (COMBLE) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-001. 10.2172/1763013.


Carneiro R and G Fisch. 2020. "Observational analysis of the daily cycle of the planetary boundary layer in the central Amazon during a non-El Nino year and El Nino year (GoAmazon project 2014/5)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(9), 10.5194/acp-20-5547-2020.

Carneiro RG, G Fisch, CK Borges, and A HENKES. 2020. "Erosion of the nocturnal boundary layer in the central Amazon during the dry season." Acta Amazonica, 50(1), 10.1590/1809-4392201804453.

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