Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

1 February 2014 - 13 September 2014

Lead Scientist: Tuukka Petaja

Observatory: amf, tmp

The Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) experiment provided a bridge from a 19-year in situ observation record to the impact of biogenic aerosol on clouds, precipitation, and climate. This was achieved by simultaneous observations of precursor vapor emission, aerosol, cloud and precipitation microstructure. This data set was used to: 1) link precursor emissions and aerosol, 2) link aerosol at the surface to aerosol in the mixed layer, and 3) investigate the aerosol indirect effect on clouds and precipitation. To achieve those goals, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed in Hyytiälä, Finland, for a period of 7.5 months, starting in January 2014, to capture the seasonal variability of biogenic aerosol at this boreal environment site. The experiment took place at the University of Helsinki SMEAR II research station, which has been monitoring biosphere-atmosphere interactions continuously since 1996.

The AMF observations were supplemented by tower- and surface-based measurements of aerosol and precursor gases. During intensive observational periods, aircraft observations of aerosol microphysics were performed. The experiment also benefited from existing measurements of precipitation provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute observational network. The 7.5-month data set was placed in perspective with the long-time series available from Hyytiälä. It was utilized in modeling efforts ranging from process models to global climate models, capitalizing on the ability to perform radiative transfer calculations with full closure.

The BAECC campaign took place in a boreal forest environment in Finland.
The BAECC campaign took place in a boreal forest environment in Finland.


Jaana Bäck Hannele Korhonen Anders Lindfors
Michael Boy Markku Kulmala Dmitri Moisseev
V. Chandrasekar Ari Laaksonen Ewan OConnor
Gerrit Deleeuw Hanna Lappalainen Sami Romakkaniemi
Veli-Matti Kerminen Kari Lehtinen Douglas Worsnop
Harri Kokkola Janne Levula
Mika Komppula Heikki Lihavainen


  • Child Campaign


TRIDON F, I Silber, A Battaglia, S Kneifel, A Fridlind, P Kalogeras, and R Dhillon. 2022. "Highly supercooled riming and unusual triple-frequency radar signatures over McMurdo Station, Antarctica." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22(18), 10.5194/acp-22-12467-2022.

Vogl T, M Maahn, S Kneifel, and D Moisseev. 2022. "Using artificial neural networks to predict riming from Doppler cloud radar observations." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 15(2), 10.5194/amt-15-365-2022.


Petäjä T, K Tabakova, A Manninen, E Ezhova, E O’Connor, D Moisseev, V Sinclair, J Backman, J Levula, K Luoma, A Virkkula, M Paramonov, M Räty, M Äijälä, L Heikkinen, M Ehn, M Sipilä, T Yli-Juuti, A Virtanen, M Ritsche, N Hickmon, G Pulik, D Rosenfeld, D Worsnop, J Bäck, M Kulmala, and V Kerminen. 2021. "Influence of biogenic emissions from boreal forests on aerosol–cloud interactions." Nature Geoscience, 15(1), 10.1038/s41561-021-00876-0.

Yli-Juuti T, T Mielonen, L Heikkinen, A Arola, M Ehn, S Isokääntä, H Keskinen, M Kulmala, A Laakso, A Lipponen, K Luoma, S Mikkonen, T Nieminen, P Paasonen, T Petäjä, S Romakkaniemi, J Tonttila, H Kokkola, and A Virtanen. 2021. "Significance of the organic aerosol driven climate feedback in the boreal area." Nature Communications, 12(1), 125637, 10.1038/s41467-021-25850-7.

Titos G, M Burgos, P Zieger, L Alados-Arboledas, U Baltensperger, A Jefferson, J Sherman, E Weingartner, B Henzing, K Luoma, C O'Dowd, A Wiedensohler, and E Andrews. 2021. "A global study of hygroscopicity-driven light-scattering enhancement in the context of other in situ aerosol optical properties." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 10.5194/acp-21-13031-2021.

Riihimaki L, C Flynn, A McComiskey, D Lubin, Y Blanchard, J Chiu, G Feingold, D Feldman, J Gristey, C Herrera, G Hodges, E Kassianov, S LeBlanc, A Marshak, J Michalsky, P Pilewskie, S Schmidt, R Scott, Y Shea, K Thome, R Wagener, and B Wielicki. 2021. "The Shortwave Spectral Radiometer for Atmospheric Science: Capabilities and Applications from the ARM User Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(3), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0227.1.


Burgos M, E Andrews, G Titos, A Benedetti, H Bian, V Buchard, G Curci, Z Kipling, A Kirkevåg, H Kokkola, A Laakso, J Letertre-Danczak, M Lund, H Matsui, G Myhre, C Randles, M Schulz, T van Noije, K Zhang, L Alados-Arboledas, U Baltensperger, A Jefferson, J Sherman, J Sun, E Weingartner, and P Zieger. 2020. "A global model–measurement evaluation of particle light scattering coefficients at elevated relative humidity." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(17), 10.5194/acp-20-10231-2020.

Tridon F, A Battaglia, and S Kneifel. 2020. "Estimating total attenuation using Rayleigh targets at cloud top: applications in multilayer and mixed-phase clouds observed by ground-based multifrequency radars." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(9), 10.5194/amt-13-5065-2020.

Li H, J Tiira, A von Lerber, and D Moisseev. 2020. "Towards the connection between snow microphysics and melting layer: insights from multifrequency and dual-polarization radar observations during BAECC." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(15), 10.5194/acp-20-9547-2020.

Goss HB, KS Dorsey, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and R Jundt. 2020. 2019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-032. 10.2172/1604869.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Michael Lawler Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev C-band Radar Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Cloud and Rainfall Parameter Retrievals Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Precipitation Imaging Probe- Stormpeak Lab Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Snow Depth Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Video Disdrometer Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev anemometer Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev disdro Order Data
Keri Nicoll Radiosondes - Extended Order Data
Matti Rissanen Chemical Ionization Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Herman Scott Cloud Optical Depth from the Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique (TWST) sensor Order Data
Joel Thornton Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data

TMP Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AOD-MFRSR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MFRSR measurements Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
ASSIST Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CEILPBLHT Boundary-layer height data with CEIL Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CSPHOT Sunphotometer Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
HSRL High Spectral Resolution Lidar Browse Data
HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Browse Data
INTERPSONDE Interpolated Sonde Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data
KAZRARSCL Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product using Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars Browse Data
KAZRCOR KAZR Corrected Data Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWACR Marine W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
RAIN Rain Gauge Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SACRADVVAD SACR Advance Velocity Azimuth Display Browse Data
SACRCOR Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Corrections Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEPARAM convective parameters derived from radiosonde data Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
VDIS Video Disdrometer Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
WACRARSCL W-band Cloud Radar Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Browse Data
XSACR X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data