Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA)

1 September 1997 - 1 September 1998

Lead Scientist: Richard Moritz

Observatory: nsa, nsa shb

The overarching purpose of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) was to produce year-long retrievals of cloud properties, including crystal/droplet sizes, optical depths, water contents, and cloud boundaries through the depth of the troposphere. These results were intended to enhance the understanding of the thermodynamic coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean when covered with sea ice.

Beginning in October 1997 and lasting for 12 months, the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic experiment, a multi-agency program led by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research, deployed an instrumented ice camp within the perennial Arctic Ocean ice pack surrounding the Des Groseilliers, an ice-strengthened ship. From this experiment, ARM began collecting complementary data on the atmosphere, sea ice, and underlying ocean and the North Slope of Alaska observatory was born.In 1997, SHEBA participants placed a Canadian icebreaker, DesGroseilliers, in the Arctic ice pack 570 kilometers northeast of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. During its year-long deployment, the DesGroseilliers powered a comprehensive suite of atmospheric, ocean, and ice sensors that were operated on the ship and the surrounding ice floe. In addition, ARM deployed two dozen instruments, including a lidar and millimeter cloud radar, and gathered 10 sets of vertical profiles of clouds and aerosol properties data from over the SHEBA site.

The interdisciplinary effort between ARM and NOAA for SHEBA consisted of three phases. The first began in 1995 with the examination of existing Arctic data and models, the second involved the deployment and operation of instruments as part of SHEBA field effort, and the third ended in 2002 with in-depth analysis of processes and feedback mechanisms from data obtained during the SHEBA deployment. Both ARM and NOAA contributed equipment, data, and personnel to this NSF-funded multiseason field experiment, which helped develop detailed models of physical processes on a local and aggregate scale.



Schneider T, C Lüpkes, W Dorn, D Chechin, D Handorf, S Khosravi, V Gryanik, I Makhotina, and A Rinke. 2021. "Sensitivity to changes in the surface‐layer turbulence parameterization for stable conditions in winter: A case study with a regional climate model over the Arctic." Atmospheric Science Letters, , e1066, 10.1002/asl.1066. ONLINE.

Chechin D. 2021. "On the u⋆−U Relationship in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Arctic Sea Ice." Atmosphere, 12(5), 10.3390/atmos12050591.

Fridlind A, C Chiu, S Collis, J Comstock, S Giangrande, N Hickmon, M Jensen, M Kumjian, P Muradyan, R Newsom, A Sockol, M Sturm, and A Theisen. 2021. ARM Cloud and Precipitation Measurements and Science Group (CPMSG) Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-005.

Vüllers J, P Achtert, I Brooks, M Tjernström, J Prytherch, A Burzik, and R Neely III. 2021. "Meteorological and cloud conditions during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(1), 10.5194/acp-21-289-2021.


Achtert P, E O'Connor, I Brooks, G Sotiropoulou, M Shupe, B Pospichal, B Brooks, and M Tjernström. 2020. "Properties of Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds from shipborne Cloudnet observations during ACSE 2014." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(23), 10.5194/acp-20-14983-2020.

Ali S and F Pithan. 2020. "Following moist intrusions into the Arctic using SHEBA observations in a Lagrangian perspective." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146(732), 10.1002/qj.3859.

Zhang X, T Schneider, and C Kaul. 2020. "Sensitivity of idealized mixed‐phase stratocumulus to climate perturbations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, , 10.1002/qj.3846. ONLINE.

Hashino T, G de Boer, H Okamoto, and G Tripoli. 2020. "Relationships between immersion freezing and crystal habit for Arctic mixed-phase clouds – a numerical study." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77(7), 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0078.1.

Goss HB, KS Dorsey, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and R Jundt. 2020. 2019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-032. 10.2172/1604869.

Kim J, M Laguë, S Pennypacker, E Dawson, and A Swann. 2020. "Evaporative Resistance is of Equal Importance as Surface Albedo in High‐Latitude Surface Temperatures Due to Cloud Feedbacks." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(4), 10.1029/2019GL085663.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Peter Hobbs UW- Convair-580 aircraft Order Data
James Liljegren Microwave Radiometer Order Data

NSA/SHB Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
NIMFR Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data