Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

interpsonde > Interpolated SondeVAP Type(s) > Baseline

ARM radiosonde (SONDE) files provide a key reference to the atmospheric state, but this is only available at the time of those radiosonde launches. However, many applications or retrievals may require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution, or may simply demand a more convenient time-height gridding of these SONDE data. The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added products (VAPs) transform ARM SONDE data into continuous daily files with thermodynamic parameters on fixed time-height grids. INTERPSONDE linearly interpolates the atmospheric state variables from available SONDE data sets in time for each height level.

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There are various benefits to the separate SONDE files and radiosonde VAPs. The INTERPSONDE VAP faithfully reports the same thermodynamic profile at the time of the ARM radiosonde launch. By excluding model outputs, INTERPSONDE products are typically available for download faster than ARM’s Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) VAP, and these thermodynamic profiles are independent of model influence as in MERGESONDE. For sites with frequent radiosonde launches, INTERPSONDE may more directly facilitate model evaluation with radiosonde observations. Because of this short turnaround period for product generation, the INTERPSONDE VAP is used by several routine ARM retrieval products such as the ARSCL and MICROBASE suites of cloud property VAPs.

This VAP provides one-minute time resolution. For additional information on the VAP interpolation procedures, please consult the technical report for the product.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Locations

Facility Name Start Date
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2002-04-28
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-09-28
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 1999-07-23


Miller M, Z Mages, Q Zheng, L Trabachino, L Russell, J Shilling, and M Zawadowicz. 2021. "Observed Relationships between Cloud Droplet Effective Radius and Biogenic Gas Concentrations in Summertime Marine Stratocumulus over the Eastern North Atlantic." Earth and Space Science, , e2021EA001929, 10.1029/2021EA001929. ONLINE.

Fairless T, M Jensen, A Zhou, and SE Giangrande. 2021. Interpolated Sonde and Gridded Sonde Value-Added Products. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-183.


Chen X, X Huang, X Dong, B Xi, E Dolinar, N Loeb, S Kato, P Stackhouse, and M Bosilovich. 2018. "Using AIRS and ARM SGP Clear-Sky Observations to Evaluate Meteorological Reanalyses: A Hyperspectral Radiance Closure Approach." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(20), 10.1029/2018JD028850.

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Scott Giangrande
Brookhaven National Laboratory

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