thwaps > Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure SensorsInstrument Type(s) > Baseline

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure sensors (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS) launches. THWAPS are located adjacent to BBSS launch sites at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and its four boundary facilities.

The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments that measure meteorological conditions near the surface. It includes a data logger to record time series of these variables.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Subba T, M Lawler, and A Steiner. 2021. "Estimation of possible primary biological particle emissions and rupture events at the Southern Great Plains ARM site." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(16), e2021JD034679, 10.1029/2021JD034679.

Levin M, D Zhang, and K Gaustad. 2021. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-128. 10.2172/1804448.


Vassallo D, R Krishnamurthy, T Sherman, and H Fernando. 2020. "Analysis of Random Forest Modeling Strategies for Multi-Step Wind Speed Forecasting." Energies, 13(20), 10.3390/en13205488.


Blumberg WG, TJ Wagner, DD Turner, and J Correia. 2017. "Quantifying the Accuracy and Uncertainty of Diurnal Thermodynamic Profiles and Convection Indices Derived from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(10), 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0036.1.


Anber U, P Gentine, S Wang, and A Sobel. 2015. "Fog and rain in the Amazon." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37), 10.1073/pnas.1505077112.
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