Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

swats > Soil Water and Temperature SystemInstrument Type(s) > Baseline

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) is designed to make hourly measurements of the soil temperature, soil water potential, and fractional water content of the soil at two profiles of eight depths at SGP Extended Facilities only.

SWATS systems were installed at all of the ARM Southern Great Plains Extended Facilities, except Okmulgee EF21. The SWATS systems were replaced with the STAMP systems in late 2015.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Dorigo W, I Himmelbauer, D Aberer, L Schremmer, I Petrakovic, L Zappa, W Preimesberger, A Xaver, F Annor, J Ardö, D Baldocchi, M Bitelli, G Blöschl, H Bogena, L Brocca, J Calvet, J Camarero, G Capello, M Choi, M Cosh, N van de Giesen, I Hajdu, J Ikonen, K Jensen, K Kanniah, I de Kat, G Kirchengast, P Kumar Rai, J Kyrouac, K Larson, S Liu, A Loew, M Moghaddam, J Martínez Fernández, C Mattar Bader, R Morbidelli, J Musial, E Osenga, M Palecki, T Pellarin, G Petropoulos, I Pfeil, J Powers, A Robock, C Rüdiger, U Rummel, M Strobel, Z Su, R Sullivan, T Tagesson, A Varlagin, M Vreugdenhil, J Walker, J Wen, F Wenger, J Wigneron, M Woods, K Yang, Y Zeng, X Zhang, M Zreda, S Dietrich, A Gruber, P van Oevelen, W Wagner, K Scipal, M Drusch, and R Sabia. 2021. "The International Soil Moisture Network: serving Earth system science for over a decade." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 25(11), 10.5194/hess-25-5749-2021.

Lawston-Parker P, J Santanello, and S Kumar. 2021. "Understanding the Impacts of Land Surface and PBL Observations on the Terrestrial and Atmospheric Legs of Land–Atmosphere Coupling." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 22(9), 10.1175/JHM-D-20-0263.1.

Yang Z, M Huang, L Berg, Y Qian, W Gustafson, Y Fang, Y Liu, J Fast, K Sakaguchi, and S Tai. 2021. "Impact of Lateral Flow on Surface Water and Energy Budgets over the Southern Great Plains – A Modeling Study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(12), e2020JD033659, 10.1029/2020JD033659.

Zhu W, J Wei, H Xiu, S Jia, and A Lv. 2021. "Coupled and continuous estimation of soil moisture and evaporative fraction within the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index framework." Journal of Hydrology, 592, 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125827.


Zhang C, S Xie, and C Tao. 2020. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-202. 10.2172/1396238.

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